Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of the Family, trans.
Robert Baldrick (London, 1962). Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage in
1500-1800 (New York, 1977).
Geoffrey Chaucer, The Prioress's Tale, VII.586-590. All Chaucer references are to
Riverside Chaucer, 3rd. ed., ed. Larry Benson (Boston, 1987). Subsequent references will be
given by fragment and line numbers.
The Miracles of King Henry VI: Being an Account and Translation of Twenty-three
Taken from the Manuscript in the British Museum (Royal 13 c.viii), ed. Ronald Know and
Shane Leslie (Cambridge, Eng., 1923). The collection of miracles was put together under the
direction of Henry VII with the intention of moving toward the canonization of Henry VI.
collection of the miracle stories pertaining to children is very similar to the coroners' inquests
the death of children.
Medieval Handbooks of Penance: A translation of the Principal Libri Penitentiales,
John T. McNeill and Helena M. Gamer (New York, 1938) has very little on the parent-child
relationship. Nicholas Orme, "Children and the Church in Medieval England," Journal of
Ecclesiastical History 45 (1994), pp. 563-587 speaks of the sparse reference to children other
baptism and the duties of the godparents to teach the basic prayers.
Miracles of Henry VI, p. 66.
The recording of accidental deaths had its roots in the Anglo-Saxon practice and the Norman
Conquest. The Anglo-Saxons, having a tender concern for the souls of people who died
without the opportunity of confessing their sins, had imposed the deodand on the community.
When someone died suddenly and violently the price of the instrument that killed him or her
charged on the community and the proceeds were to go to prayers for the salvation of the soul
the deceased. The Normans continued the practice but kept the profits for the crown. For a
account of the source see R. F. Hunnisett, The Medieval Coroner (Cambridge, 1961).
coroners' rolls are preserved in the Public Record Office in London under the classification of
2. Hereafter referred to as P. R. O. Just. 2/.
Barbara A. Hanawalt, "The Voices and Audiences of Social History Records," Social
History, 15 (1991), pp. 159-175 for a more complete discussion of the narratives to be found
in coroners' inquests.
Barbara A. Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London (New York, 1993), pp. 79-80
a discussion of the customs surrounding St. Gregory and the boy bishops.
Calendar of Coroners Rolls of the City of London, A. D. 1300-1378, ed. Reginald R.
(London, 1913), pp. 63-64.
Miracles of Henry VI, pp. 50-54 (Latin transcript given in footnote).
Barbara A. Hanawalt, "Childrearing Among the Lower Classes of Late Medieval England,"
Journal of Interdisciplinary History 8 (1977): 1-21.
Miracles of Henry VI, pp. 35, 85, 115.
Canterbury Tales, VII.548-554. Donald Weinstein and Rudolph Bell, Saints and
The Two Worlds of Western Christendom (Chicago, 1982) pp. 19-47 for the character of
The Miracles of Henry VI, pp. 35-37, 116-117. See also pp. 55, 56, 85 ("The news roused
the whole household; the men servants came round shouting, or ran to and fro lamenting
Barbara A. Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England
York, 1986), p. 176.
P. R. O. Just. 2/18 ms. 42d, 45; 2/104 m. 18d.; 2/200 m. 2; 2/199. Bedfordshire Coroners
Rolls, trans. R. F. Hunnisett, Bedfordshire Historical Record Society 41 (1961), pp. 25, 45.
V. Propp, Morphology of the Folktale, trans. Laurence Scott (Austin, 1968), pp. 25-29,
Miracles of Henry VI, pp. 88, 104, 171-176, 179-181, 195.
Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 87-89.
Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 141-155. See also Martine Segalen, Mari et femme
dans la société paysanne (Paris, 1980) and Historical Anthropology of the Family,
J. C. Whitehouse and Sarah Matthews (Cambridge, Eng., 1986), pp. 205-219.
Albert P. Iskrant and Paul V. Joliet, Accidents and Homicide (Cambridge, Mass., 1968),
pp. 23, 138.
P. R. O. Just. 2/113 m. 37. See also Just. 2/113 ms. 32, 33, 46.
P. R. O. Just. 2/109 m. 8. See also Just. 2/106 m. 1d., 2/77 m. 5d.
Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 158-159.
Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 272-273 for tables on children's activities and place of
death; p. 171 for tables on adults.
Figures from Miracles of Henry VI.
Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London, 6 vols., ed. A. H.
and Philip E. Jones (Cambridge, Eng., 1926-1961), 5: 11-12, 1439.
Miracles of Henry VI, p. 164.
Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, VII.530: "His felawe, which that elder was than he . . . ."
VII.544-5: "His felawe taughte hym homward prively,/ Fro day to day, til he koude it by rote."
Calendar of Coroners' Rolls of the City of London, pp. 34-35.
Miracles of Henry VI, pp. 159-161.
Barbara A. Hanawalt, Crime and Conflict in English Communities, 1300-1348
Mass., 1979), pp. 154-157 for a discussion of evidence for infanticide. For a discussion of the
basis for a pardon for infanticide see Naomi D. Hurnard, The King's Pardon for Homicide
before A. D. 1307 (Oxford, 1969), p. 169. The law did not clearly state until the sixteenth
century that a mother was culpable of murder when she killed her infant. Jurors were thus
about whether indictments could be brought or not and, if they were, what was to be done
the woman who proved to be guilty of killing her newborn child.
Richard H. Helmholz, "Infanticide in the Province of Canterbury during the Fifteenth
History of Childhood Quarterly 2 (1975), 384.
Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London, p. 58. One curious figure comes from the
London court of orphans. At the time that children entered wardship 780 or 45 percent were
females and 951 or 55 percent of the children were male. The shortfall of females should not
occurred because of inheritance since male and female children inherited equally. The figure
need more investigation.
Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, p. 181.
C. A. Sneyd, ed., The Italian Relation of England, Camden Society 37 (London, 1847), p.
24. One of the most naive uses of the quote is Barbara Kaye Greenleaf, Children Through
Ages: A History of Childhood (New York, 1978) who has distilled Ariès into a book
for education students.
Sue Sheridan Walker, "The Feudal Family and the Common Law courts: The Pleas of
in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century England," Journal of Medieval History 14
Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London, A-L, 11 vols., ed. R. R. Sharpe (London,
1899-1912). Hereafter referred to as Letter Book with an alphabetical number. Letter Book
p. 207, Letter Book I, pp. 220-221. Liber Albus: The White Book of the City of London, ed.
Henry Thomas Riley (London, 1861), pp. 95-96. See also Elaine Clark, "City Orphans and
Custody Laws in Medieval England," American Journal of Legal History 34 (1990),
Letter Book C, pp. 81-82; Letter Book E, p. 121; Letter Book G, p. 91.
Calendar of Wills Proved and Enrolled in the Court of Husting, London, A. D. 1258-A. D.
1688, ed. Reginald Robinson Sharpe (London, 1889-1890) for the years 1300-1500.
These included uncles or aunts of the child, grandparents, elder sons, and a nephew.
Letter Book G, p. 95 (1358) records the terms of a will in a wardship enrollment.
Bedyk gave to Simon Fraunceys, mercer, the wardship, custody, and marriage of his son Henry
during his minority.
Hanawalt, Ties That Bound, pp. 221-225. Cicely Howell, "Peasant Inheritance
in the Midlands, 1280-1700," in Family and Inheritance: Rural Society in Western
ed. Jack Goody, Joan Thirsk, and E. P. Thompson (Cambridge, Eng., 1976), pp. 112-155 has a
discussion on strategies of inheritance and responsibilities of the widow should she have young
Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London, pp. 97, 103.
Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound, pp. 250-253. Adoption, as we know it, was not one of
those aspects of Roman law that passed into the medieval tradition. Foundling homes were also
not common although some hospitals for unwed mothers were established, thus recognizing the
John Boswell, The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe
from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance (New York, l988).
Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London, 2: xxxiii-xxxv. Steve
Rappaport, Worlds Within Worlds: Structures of Life in Sixteenth-Century London
(Cambridge, Eng., 1989), pp. 77-84.
Corporation of London Record Office, hereafter referred to as CLRO with manuscript
MC1/2/5, MC1/2/116. See Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London, pp. 157-163 for
a more complete discussion.
Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London, pp. 146-149, 157-163.
Miracles of Henry VI, pp. 65-72, 84-87, 206-210.
Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London, pp. 170-171 for the close relationship
masters and apprentices as seen largely in wills.
Hanawalt, Growing Up in Medieval London, pp. 33, 43. Charles Pendrill, London
in the Fourteenth Century (1925; repr. Port Washington, N. Y., 1971), pp. 173, 183-85,
Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London, 6: 129-130.