1. Benedicta Ward, Harlots of the Desert (Kalamazoo:
Cistercian Publications, 1987).
2. Ward, Harlots, 84. The story of Thais is found in PL 73,
3. Hrotswitha of Gandersheim, "Paphnutius," in Comoedia
(PL 137, cols.1027-46). Cited in Ward, Harlots, 76, 81.
4. Ward, Harlots, 62. Ward is quick to assert, however, that
the action of women who disguise themselves as men "has nothing do with a rejection of
femininity; in fact it was an assertion of it; before God, all souls were feminine, and it is this
femininity that the women claim, as do the men of the desert" (Ward, 63). Ward is reluctant to
in such rigorous self-denial a concomitant denial of gender.
5. Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women,
and SexualRenunciation in Early Christianity (New York: Columbia University
Press, 1988), 247.
6. C.H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism, 2nd ed. (New
York: Longmans, 1989), 102.
7 . The Rule of the Master, trans. Luke Eberle (Kalamazoo:
Cistercian Publications, 1977). For a discussion of the RegulaMagistri and its
relationship to Benedict's Rule, see The Rule of Saint Benedict, ed. Timothy Fry,
O.S.B. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1981), 70-73.
8. Eberle, Rule, 126.
9. Eberle, Rule, 190.
10. Eberle, Rule, 121-22.
11. Eberle, Rule, "Chapter XII: Treatment of an
12. My information on and examples from De Quadripartito
exercitiocellae are taken from James Hogg's "Adam the Carthusian's De
Quadripartito exercitio cellae
in De Cella in Seculum: Religious and Secular Life and Devotional Life in Late Medieval
England, ed. Michael G. Sargent, Analecta Cartusiana 99, no. 1 (Cambridge: D.S.
Brewer, 1989), 67-79.
13. Consuetudines Cartusiae, 75, cited in Lawrence,
Medieval Monasticism, 135. The Latin text of Consuetudines is available in
PL 153, col. 703 and in The evolution of the Carthusian Statutes fromthe
Consuetudines Guigonis to the Tertia Compilatio, ed. James Hogg. Analecta Cartusiana
99, no.1 (1989).
14. Hogg, 77.
15. Hogg, 76.
16. Phillip of Harvengt, De institutione clericorum 4
(De continentia clericorum) 125, PL 203, col. 936A. Quoted in Giles
Constable, Monks, Hermits, and Crusaders in Medieval Europe (London: Variorum
Reprints, 1988), 43.
17. Constable, 242, cites Benedicta Ward's claim that the "desert
myth" was a "literary ideology" in "The Desert Myth: Reflections on the Desert Ideal in Early
Cistercian Monasticism," One Yet Two: Monastic Tradition East and West, ed. M.B
Pennington (Kalamazoo:Cistercian Publications, 1976), 188.
18. Constable, 249.
19. From Gregorianum VI: 17, in PL 193:269D. Quoted
in Constable, 250.
20. Catherine of Siena, The Orcherd of Syon, ed. Phyllis
Hodgson and Gabriel M. Liegey. Early English Text Society no. 258 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1966).
21. Quoted in Phyllis Hodgson, "The Orcherd of Syon and
the English Mystical Tradition," in Middle English Literature, ed. J.A. Burrow (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1989), 74.
22. Ibid., 78.
23. These texts in translation may be found in The Collected
Worksof St. Teresa of Avila, vol. II and III, ed. Kieran Kavanaugh and Otilio
Rodriguez (Washington, D.C.: ICS Publications, 1985).
24. The Collected Works II, Foundations, chapter
31, paragraph 46. Cited in "Introduction" to Foundations, 25.
25. The Collected Works, II , Foundations, chapter
30, paragraph 8. Cited in "Introduction" to Foundations,"29.
26. The Collected Works, II, The Interior Castle,
27. Ibid., 270, quoting Teresa's comment in "Epilogue," no.3.
28. Ibid., 441-42.
29. Ibid., 433.
30. Ibid., "Epilogue," 451.
Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early
Christianity. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1988.
Catherine of Siena. The Orcherd of Syon. Edited by Phyllis Hodgson and Gabriel M.
Liegey. Early English Text Society no. 258. New York: Oxford Univ.
Constable, Giles. Monks, Hermits, and Crusaders in Medieval Europe. London:
Variorum Reprints, 1988.
Eberle, Luke, trans. The Rule of the Master (Regula Magistri, compiled by
Aniane). Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1977.
Hodgson, Phyllis. "The Orcherd of Syon and the English Mystical Tradition." In
Middle English Literature, edited by J.A. Burrow. 72-91.
Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989.
Hogg, James. "Adam the Carthusian's De Quadripartito Exercitio Cellae," In o
De Cella in Seculum: Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England,
edited by Michael G. Sargeant, 67-79. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1989.
Lawrence, C.H. Medieval Monasticism. 1984. 2nd ed. New York Longmans,
Teresa of Avila, The Collected Works of St. Teresa of Avila. vol. II. Edited by
Kavanaugh and Otilio Rodriquez. Washington, D.C.: ICS Publications, 1985.
Ward, Benedicta. Harlots of the Desert. Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, 1987.